Feb 02

Elegir un árbol

Cuando decidas plantar un árbol en tu jardín presta especial atención a su elección. Esta elección va a condicionar el futuro desarrollo del árbol y tu relación con él; como te equivoques  te vas a arrepentir no el resto de tu vida pero sí el resto de la vida del árbol plantado.

Empecemos por el tamaño. Entre un ciruelo ornamental de hojas bronceadas –Prunus cerasifera pissardi- que puede alcanzar unos 10 y un tulípero –Liriodendron tulipifera- que rara vez baja de los 35, las posibilidades son muchas pero, por más abono que le apliquemos al ciruelo, este nunca alcanzara los 35 metros y el tulipero si bien lo podemos mantener por debajo de los 10 con podas frecuentes, es tal el daño que le generamos que su futuro se va a ver seriamente comprometido. Así pues, determinar la altura que consideramos aceptable para el espacio del jardín en que vamos a plantar nuestro árbol es fundamental. (Ver listado de árboles clasificados por su altura)Y otro tanto puede decirse de la anchura de su copa y de la altura a que esta arranca sobre el tronco, -si va a permitir que caminemos bajo él, por ejemplo- Esto viene determinado por el porte y forma del árbol en cuestión. Porte y forma que debemos respetar escrupulosamente para así conseguir que el árbol crezca vigoroso y sano.

No olvidemos que plagas y enfermedades no son más que síntomas de debilidad.  Un árbol  que crece sin restricciones en su parte aerea y cuyas raíces encuentran el agua, los nutrientes y el aire que necesitan es muy capaz de defenderse perfectamente frente a cochinillas, arañas, pulgones, royas, oidios, etc.


Diversas formas de árboles

El siguiente punto a valorar será elegir de entre todas las especies que cumplen con el criterio de porte y forma que nos interesa, cual es el que se adapta a nuestro suelo y al clima en que se ubica nuestro jardín.  Podemos ser muy meticulosos o limitarnos a investigar que especies hay en nuestro entorno que tengan un aspecto aceptable. Con este criterio puede que no demos con la especie idonea pero seguro que el margen de error es mínimo. Si acaso el suelo puede haber sido sustituido parcialmente con aporte de tierras foráneas, pero rara vez se habrá modificado más allá de los 20 30 cm. de profundidad, algo totalmente anecdótico para un árbol, más aún teniendo en cuenta la capacidad de adaptación de los árboles.


Listado de árboles

Muy grandes (más de 30 m)

Castanea sativa
Populus alba
Populus nigra
Fraxinus excelsior
Tilia cordata
Platanus x hispanica


Grandes (20-30 m)
Fagus sylvatica
Quercus sp.
Juglans regia
Acer platanoides
Acer pseudoplatanus
Acer sacharinum


Medianos (10-20 m)
Populus tremula
Alnus glutinosa
Catalpa bignonioidesc
Acer campestre
Carpinus betulus
Liquidambar styracyflua
Betula sp.
Magnolia grandiflor


Pequeños (menos de 10 m)
Magnolia x soulangiana
Magnolia stellata
Acer palmatum
Cercis siliquastrum
Prunus cerasifera
Prunus serrulata
Malus floribunda
Pyrus calleriana
Citrus aurantium
Albizia julibrisim
Acacia dealbata
Acer negundo
Morus nigra


Arbustos que se pueden formar con
porte arbóreo
Cornus kousa
Lagerstroemia indica
Parrotia persica
Rhus typhina
Callistemon speciosus
Crataegus laevigata
Ilex aquifolium


Palmeras (menos  de 10 m)
Trachycarpus fortunei


Confieras pequeñas (menos de 10 m)
Cedrus atlantica “Glauca pendula”
Chamaecyparis pisifera
Cryptomeria japonica “Elegans”
Juniperus communis
Juniperus oxycedrus
Juniperus virginiana
Picea pungens “Koster”
Pinus aristata
Pinus sylvestris “aurea”
Taxus baccata “Fastigiata”


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